Karate Terminology

What does all the Japanese mean?

Budo: (boo-do) Martial Way or Path; A martial discipline whose aim is to promote the spiritual development of its practitioners. Do: Literally means the way or path. The DO is the way of self development..

Kiai: Short, sharp, audible sound made at the instant of focus to help tense the body and focus the mind for maximum effectiveness.

Kime: Focus, the concentration of mind and body to achieve maximum effectiveness.

Zanshin: The state of total awareness and composure before, during and after an encounter.

Jodan: Face Level
Chudan: Stomach Level
Gedan: Lower Level

Sensei: Teacher
Sempai: Senior Belt
Kohai: Junior Belt

Kyu: Junior Rank
Dan: Senior Rank
Shihan: Master

Ken: Fist
Seiken: Fore Fist
Ippon-ken: One Knuckle Fist
Nakadaka-ken: Middle Knuckle Fist
Nukite: Spear Hand
Ippon-nukite: One Finger Spear Hand

Dojo: Training Hall
Shihai: Tournament
Makiwara: Punching Board

Hajime: Begin
Yame: Finish
Enorae: Relax
Mokso: Breathing Exercise
Seiza: Formal Kneeling Position

Gi: Uniform
Obi: Belt

Mawatte: Turn
Shugo: Assemble (line up)
Yoi: Ready
Karate-ka: Person practising Karate.

Stances (dachi)

Zenkutsu-dachi: Front Stance
Kiba-dachi: Side Stance
Kokutsu-dachi: Back Stance

Fudo-dachi: Rooted Stance
Hangetsu-dachi: Half-Moon Stance
Sanchin-dachi: Hour-Glass Stance

Neiko Ashi-dachi: Cat Stance
Shiko-dachi: Square Stance
Heisoku-dachi: Feet and toes together
Musubi-dachi: Heels together, toes at 45 degrees
Hachiji-dachi: Feet shoulder Width and pointed out
Heiko-dachi: Feet shoulder width and straight
Uchu Hachiji-dachi: Feet shoulder width and pointed in
Teiji-dachi: T-Angled Stance
Renoji-dachi: L-Angled stance

Blocking (uke)

Age-uke: Rising Block
Soto Ude-uke: Outside Forearm Block
Uchi Ude-uke: Inside Forearm Block
Shuto-uke: Knife Hand Block
Gedan-barai: Downward Block

Juji-uke: X-Block
Haishu-uke: Backhand Block
Kakiwaki-uke: Inside Wedge Hand Block
Moroto-uke: Reinforced Block
Nagashi-uke: Sweeping Block Knife
Tate Shuto-uke: Hand Block (arm straight)

Counting

1) Ichi
2) Ni
3) San
4) Shi
5) Go
6) Roku
7) Shichi
8) Hachi
9) Ku
10) Ju

Striking (uchi)

Uraken: Back Fist
Shuto-uchi: Knife Hand Strike
Teisho-uchi: Palm Heel Strike
Kentsui-uchi: Hammer Fist Strike
Empi-uchi: Elbow Strike
Haito-uchi: Ridge Hand Strike
Nukite: Spear Hand

Punching (tsuki)

Choku-tsuki: Front Punch
Oi-tsuki: Lunge Punch
Gyaku-tsuki: Reverse Punch
Kizami-tsuki: Leading Hand Jab
Sanbon-tsuki: Three Punch Combination
Ura-tsuki: Half Punch
Kage-tsuki: Hook Punch
Mawashi-tsuki: Round House Punch
Moroto-tsuki: Double Punch
Yama-tsuki: Mountain Punch
Age-tsuki: Rising Punch

Kicking (geri)

Mae-geri: Front Snap Kick
Yoko-geri Keage: Side Snap Kick
Yoko-geri Kekomi: Side Thrust Kick
Mawashi-geri: Roundhouse Kick
Fumikomi-geri: Downward Thrust Kick
Ushiro-geri: Back Thrust Kick
Ashi-barei: Foot or Leg Sweep
Hiza-geri: Knee Kick
Naimae-ashi: Returning Wave Kick
Mikasuki-geri: Crescent Kick
Gyaku Mawashi-geri: Reverse Round House Kick
Kakato-geri : Axe Kick

Sparring (kumite)

Sanbon Kumite: Three Step Basic Sparring
Gohon Kumite: Five Step Basic Sparring
Kihon Ippon Kumite: One Step Basic Sparring
Jiyu Ippon Kumite: One Step Semi Free Sparring
Jiyu Kumite: Sparring Free Sparring